Photo by Tom Dusenbery
As we reported this morning on the Gazette’s Web site, Boone County native Maria Gunnoe is one of seven winners of the prestigious Goldman Environmental Prize, given each year to top grassroots activists around the world.
You can read Maria’s story in her own words here,Â and she’s been written about in recent years by, among others, the Toronto Star, The Guardian/Observer, the Boston Globe, the St. Petersburg Times,Â the Christian Science Monitor, and USA Today.
Because of an embargo time imposed by the Goldman Prize folks (3:01 a.m. eastern), we weren’t able to publish this in the Sunday Gazette-Mail today. It will appear in Monday’s print edition.
Photo by John Antonelli
Another of this year’s Goldman winners is Marc Ona Essangui, who has been fighting
an iron ore mining project in the West African country of Gabon. Ona uses a wheelchair because of childhood polio.
Photo by Antrim Caskey
Here’s the rest of what the Goldman Prize folks had to say about Maria and mountaintop removal:
In the heart of Appalachia, where the coal industry wields enormous power over government and public opinion, lifelong resident Maria Gunnoe fights against environmentally-devastating mountaintop removal mining and valley fill operations.
The Appalachian Mountains, stretching from Canada to Alabama along eastern North America, contains some of the most important forest ecosystems in North America. Central Appalachia, including West Virginia, is home to the most diverse hardwood forests of all Appalachia with oak, buckeye, birch, maple, beech, ash and dogwood species. Central Appalachiaâ€™s headwater rivers and streams, historically some of the purest water on the continent, are the water source for millions of people.
Central Appalachia also contains coal, a critical fossil fuel resource. The coal industry has long been the backbone of the regionâ€™s economy and the main employer of generations of working-class families living in the Appalachian coalfields. In recent decades, mountaintop removal coal mining has become common in Central Appalachia. Different from traditional underground coal mining, mountaintop removal is highly mechanized and thus employs fewer workers. Companies first clear-cut a mountaintop and then blast an average of 800 feet off the top of the mountain in order to access coal seams that lie beneath. Rubble from the blasted mountains, often containing toxic debris, is dumped into adjacent valleys to form â€œvalley fills.â€
Without foliage and natural layers of soil, the land is rendered unable to retain water. As a result, flooding of communities below valley fills has become a severe and increasingly frequent problem. In December 2008, the Bush Administration approved a final rule that will make it easier for coal companies to dump rock and other mine waste from mountaintop removal mining operations into nearby streams and valleys. Weakening what is known as the federal stream buffer rule, the move is one of the most controversial environmental regulation changes coming from the Bush Administration in its final months.Â
Unique Appalachian Culture
Maria Gunnoe, 40, was born and raised at the mouth of a narrow hollow in Boone County, West Virginia, now one of the most active mountaintop removal regions in the United States. Her familyâ€™s roots in the region date back to the early 1800s, when her ancestors escaped the forced removal of their Cherokee peoples from Georgia by walking along streams to the headwaters, settling safely in the fertile hollows of Central Appalachia. She comes from a long line of coal miners, including her Cherokee grandfather, who in the 1950s purchased the land where her home stands today.
Throughout much of rural Appalachia, a unique culture of survival and living off of the land has thrived for centuries. Gunnoeâ€™s family instilled in her a deep connection to the forest and streams, where her community hunts, fishes, and gathers foods and medicinal plants throughout the seasons. This traditional rural culture is threatened by the invasive mining practices that now dominate the region.
Coal Minerâ€™s Daughter Speaks Up
In 2000, a 1,200-acre mountaintop removal mine began on the ridge above Gunnoeâ€™s home. Today, her house sits directly below a 10-story valley fill that contains two toxic ponds of mine waste comprised of run-off from the mine. Since the mine became operational, Gunnoeâ€™s property has flooded seven times. Before mining began, Gunnoeâ€™s property was never prone to such flooding. In a 2004 flood, much of Gunnoeâ€™s ancestral home was destroyed and her yard was covered in toxic coal sludge. The coal company told her the damage was an â€œact of God.â€ As a result of mine waste, her well and ground water have been contaminated, forcing her family to use bottled water for cooking and drinking.
In 2004, Gunnoe, a medical technician by training and former waitress, began volunteering with many local advocacy organizations and then working for the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition (OVEC) to educate her neighbors about the environmental dangers of mountaintop removal. She organized monthly Boone County meetings, and soon provided community trainings on how to read mining permits, write letters to the editor, interface with the media, and protest using nonviolent methods. Gunnoe also created neighborhood groups to monitor coal companies for illegal behavior and to report toxic spills. She has encouraged other residents to speak at hearings about their concerns over mountaintop removal.
In March 2007, OVEC and partner groups won a federal lawsuit against the Army Corps of Engineers that repealed mountaintop removal valley fill permits in southern West Virginia granted without adequate environmental consideration, and banned issuance of new permits. In defiance of the federal judgeâ€™s orders, the Corps granted permits to Jupiter Holdings to construct two new valley fills above Gunnoeâ€™s community at its Boone County mine. OVEC challenged the permits in federal court, and a hearing was scheduled for September 2007. Days before the hearing, Gunnoe organized a media training for 20 local residents, some of whom were scheduled to testify with her. However, at the community hall, more than 60 coal miners showed up and harassed Gunnoe and her neighbors, stopping the meeting and intimidating the group.
After the incident at the community hall, Gunnoeâ€™s neighbors decided not to testify in the hearing challenging Jupiter Holdingsâ€™ permits. Gunnoe was the sole community resident to do so. In October 2007, federal district court Judge Robert Chambers ruled in favor of Gunnoe and OVEC and issued an injunction, ordering Jupiter Holdings to halt the construction of any new valley fills at its Boone County mine.
Gunnoe and a coalition of regional groups are now advocating for passage of the federal Clean Water Protection Act, and the reinstatement of the buffer zone rule that would strengthen environmental laws regulating mountaintop removal. She is also working with Appalachian groups to promote viable renewable energy opportunities for the region.
Observers confirm that mine managers point to Gunnoe as an enemy of mine workers and their jobs, and have encouraged acts of harassment. Gunnoe has received numerous verbal threats on her life, and her children are frequently harassed at school. Gunnoeâ€™s neighbors recently overheard people planning an arson attack on her home. Her daughterâ€™s dog was shot dead, and â€œwantedâ€ posters of Gunnoe have appeared in local convenience stores. Gunnoe has recently taken serious measures to protect both her family and property.
And here’s some video of Maria talking about Marsh Fork Elementary School: